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Multiple sensors I2C stop working suddenly

Arduino Asked by Zaffresky on October 6, 2020

I am using multiple temperature sensors using I2C. Some of the sensors are connected via TCA9548 multiplexer. When I run the sketch it runs fine for a few minutes but then it suddenly stops working while printing the results. I have tried changing the baud rate, trying two different arduinos but it happens on both arduinos. So I wonder if it’s some kind of buffer overflow (serial prints) or there is any collision happening on the I2C bus. Now the only other way I can think of is to run each sensor separately and see if I can find the problematic sensor. Or are there better ways to fix the issue?

/* 9 temperature & Humidity Sensors
    1 x BME280 #1 (0x77)[Ch 0]
    1 x BME280 #2 (0x77) [Ch 1]
    1 x BME280 #3 (0x76)
    1 x SHT21 (0x40) [Ch 7]
    1 x Si7021 (0x40) [Ch 5]
    1 x HTU21D (0x40) [Ch 6]
    1 x HDC1080 (0x40) [Ch 4]
    1 x AHT10 (0x38)
    1 x HDC2080 (0x41)

*/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_Sensor.h>
#include <Adafruit_BME280.h>
#include <Sodaq_SHT2x.h>
#include "SparkFunHTU21D.h"
#include <HDC2080.h>
#include "ClosedCube_HDC1080.h"
#include <AHT10.h>
#include "Adafruit_Si7021.h"

Adafruit_BME280 bme1; // I2C
Adafruit_BME280 bme2; // I2C
Adafruit_BME280 bme3; // I2C
HTU21D HTU;
HDC2080 HDC2080(0x41);
ClosedCube_HDC1080 hdc1080;
AHT10 AHT(AHT10_ADDRESS_0X38);

Adafruit_Si7021 Si7021 = Adafruit_Si7021();
bool enableHeater = false;
uint8_t loopCnt = 0;

unsigned long delayTime;

#define MPLXADR 0x70 // Address of TCA9548A I2C Multiplexer
void multiplexer (uint8_t ch) { //ch is the channel on Multiplexer
  if (ch > 7) return;

  Wire.beginTransmission(MPLXADR);
  Wire.write(1 << ch);
  Wire.endTransmission();
}

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  while (AHT.begin() != true)
  {
    Serial.println(F("AHT10 not connected or fail to load calibration coefficient")); //(F()) save string to flash & keeps dynamic memory free
    delay(5000);
  }
  Serial.println(F("AHT10 OK"));

  HDC2080.begin();

  // Begin with a device reset
  HDC2080.reset();

  // Set up the comfort zone
  HDC2080.setHighTemp(28);         // High temperature of 28C
  HDC2080.setLowTemp(22);          // Low temperature of 22C
  HDC2080.setHighHumidity(55);     // High humidity of 55%
  HDC2080.setLowHumidity(40);      // Low humidity of 40%

  // Configure Measurements
  HDC2080.setMeasurementMode(TEMP_AND_HUMID);  // Set measurements to temperature and humidity
  HDC2080.setRate(ONE_HZ);                     // Set measurement frequency to 1 Hz
  HDC2080.setTempRes(FOURTEEN_BIT);
  HDC2080.setHumidRes(FOURTEEN_BIT);

  //begin measuring
  HDC2080.triggerMeasurement();


  Serial.println();

  Serial.println(F("BME280 test"));

  //BME280 sensor 1
  //  multiplexer(0);
  //  if (! bme1.begin(0x77, &Wire)) {
  //    Serial.println("Could not find a valid BME280 sensor, check wiring!");
  //    while (1);
  //  }

  // weather monitoring
  //  Serial.println("-- Weather Station Scenario --");
  //  Serial.println("forced mode, 1x temperature / 1x humidity / 1x pressure oversampling,");
  //  Serial.println("filter off");
  //  bme1.setSampling(Adafruit_BME280::MODE_FORCED,
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // temperature
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // pressure
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // humidity
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::FILTER_OFF   );

  //BME280 sensor 2
  multiplexer(1);
  if (! bme2.begin(0x77, &Wire)) {
    Serial.println("Could not find a valid BME280 sensor, check wiring!");
    //while (1);
  }

  // weather monitoring
//  Serial.println("-- Weather Station Scenario --");
//  Serial.println("forced mode, 1x temperature / 1x humidity / 1x pressure oversampling,");
//  Serial.println("filter off");
  bme2.setSampling(Adafruit_BME280::MODE_FORCED,
                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // temperature
                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // pressure
                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // humidity
                   Adafruit_BME280::FILTER_OFF   );

  //BME280 sensor 3
//  if (! bme3.begin(0x76, &Wire)) {
//    Serial.println("Could not find a valid BME280 sensor, check wiring!");
//    //while (1);
//  }

  // weather monitoring
//  Serial.println("-- Weather Station Scenario --");
//  Serial.println("forced mode, 1x temperature / 1x humidity / 1x pressure oversampling,");
//  Serial.println("filter off");
//  bme3.setSampling(Adafruit_BME280::MODE_FORCED,
//                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // temperature
//                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // pressure
//                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // humidity
//                   Adafruit_BME280::FILTER_OFF   );
//
//  // suggested rate is 1/60Hz (1m)
//  delayTime = 10000; // in milliseconds

  Serial.println("Initiating HTU21D");
  multiplexer(6);
  HTU.begin();

  Serial.println("HDC1080 Arduino Test");

  // Default settings:
  //  - Heater off
  //  - 14 bit Temperature and Humidity Measurement Resolutions
  multiplexer(4);
  hdc1080.begin(0x40);


  Serial.println("Si7021 test!");

  multiplexer(5);
  if (!Si7021.begin()) {
    Serial.println("Did not find Si7021 sensor!");
    //while (true);
  }

}

void loop() {

  unsigned long newTime = millis();
  static unsigned long oldTime = 0;

  if (newTime - oldTime >= 60000) {
    oldTime = newTime;

    printValuesHDC2080();

    multiplexer(4);
    printValuesHDC1080();

//    bme3.takeForcedMeasurement(); // has no effect in normal mode
//    printValuesBME3();

    multiplexer(1);
    bme2.takeForcedMeasurement(); // has no effect in normal mode
    printValuesBME2();

    multiplexer(6);
    printValuesHTU();

    multiplexer(5);
    printValueSi7021();

    printValuesAHT();

    //  multiplexer(0);
    //  bme1.takeForcedMeasurement(); // has no effect in normal mode
    //  printValuesBME1();

    multiplexer(7);
    printValuesSHT21();


    Serial.println();
    Serial.println();
  }
}

//void printValuesBME1() {
//
//  Serial.println();
//  Serial.print("BME1 Readings");
//  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
//  Serial.print("Temperature = ");
//  Serial.print(bme1.readTemperature());
//  Serial.println(" *C");
//  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
//  Serial.print("Humidity = ");
//  Serial.print(bme1.readHumidity());
//  Serial.println(" %");
//}

void printValuesBME2() {

  Serial.print("BME2: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(bme2.readTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(bme2.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesBME3() {

  Serial.print("BME3: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(bme3.readTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(bme3.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesSHT21() {
  Serial.print("SHT21: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(SHT2x.GetTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(SHT2x.GetHumidity());
}


void printValuesHTU() {
  Serial.print("HTU: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  float humd = HTU.readHumidity();
  float temp = HTU.readTemperature();

  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(temp, 2);
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(humd, 2);
}

void printValuesHDC2080() {
  Serial.print("HDC2080:");
  //Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = "); Serial.print(HDC2080.readTemp());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = "); Serial.println(HDC2080.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesHDC1080() {
  Serial.print("HDC1080:");
  // Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(hdc1080.readTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(hdc1080.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesAHT() {
  /* DEMO - 1, every temperature or humidity call will read 6 bytes over I2C, total 12 bytes */
  Serial.print(F("AHT10: "));
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print(F("T = ")); Serial.print(AHT.readTemperature()); //by default "AHT10_FORCE_READ_DATA"
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print(F("H = ")); Serial.println(AHT.readHumidity());    //by default "AHT10_FORCE_READ_DATA"
}


void printValueSi7021() {
  Serial.print(F("Si7021: "));
  // Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(Si7021.readTemperature(), 2);
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(Si7021.readHumidity(), 2);


  //
  //  // Toggle heater enabled state every 30 seconds
  //  // An ~1.8 degC temperature increase can be noted when heater is enabled
  //  if (++loopCnt == 30) {
  //    enableHeater = !enableHeater;
  //    Si7021.heater(enableHeater);
  //    // Serial.print("Heater Enabled State: ");
  //    if (Si7021.isHeaterEnabled()) {
  //      //  Serial.println("ENABLED");
  //    } else {
  //      // Serial.println("DISABLED");
  //
  //      loopCnt = 0;
}

Code with delay:

/* 9 temperature & Humidity Sensors
    1 x BME280 #1 (0x77)[Ch 0]
    1 x BME280 #2 (0x77) [Ch 1]
    1 x BME280 #3 (0x76)
    1 x SHT21 (0x40) [Ch 7]
    1 x Si7021 (0x40) [Ch 5]
    1 x HTU21D (0x40) [Ch 6]
    1 x HDC1080 (0x40) [Ch 4]
    1 x AHT10 (0x38)
    1 x HDC2080 (0x41)

*/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_Sensor.h>
#include <Adafruit_BME280.h>
#include <Sodaq_SHT2x.h>
#include "SparkFunHTU21D.h"
#include <HDC2080.h>
#include "ClosedCube_HDC1080.h"
#include <AHT10.h>
#include "Adafruit_Si7021.h"

Adafruit_BME280 bme1; // I2C
Adafruit_BME280 bme2; // I2C
Adafruit_BME280 bme3; // I2C
HTU21D HTU;
HDC2080 HDC2080(0x41);
ClosedCube_HDC1080 hdc1080;
AHT10 AHT(AHT10_ADDRESS_0X38);

Adafruit_Si7021 Si7021 = Adafruit_Si7021();
bool enableHeater = false;
uint8_t loopCnt = 0;

unsigned long delayTime;

#define MPLXADR 0x70 // Address of TCA9548A I2C Multiplexer
void multiplexer (uint8_t ch) { //ch is the channel on Multiplexer
  if (ch > 7) return;

  Wire.beginTransmission(MPLXADR);
  Wire.write(1 << ch);
  Wire.endTransmission();
}

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  while (AHT.begin() != true)
  {
    Serial.println(F("AHT10 not connected or fail to load calibration coefficient")); //(F()) save string to flash & keeps dynamic memory free
    delay(5000);
  }
  Serial.println(F("AHT10 OK"));

  HDC2080.begin();

  // Begin with a device reset
  HDC2080.reset();

  // Set up the comfort zone
  HDC2080.setHighTemp(28);         // High temperature of 28C
  HDC2080.setLowTemp(22);          // Low temperature of 22C
  HDC2080.setHighHumidity(55);     // High humidity of 55%
  HDC2080.setLowHumidity(40);      // Low humidity of 40%

  // Configure Measurements
  HDC2080.setMeasurementMode(TEMP_AND_HUMID);  // Set measurements to temperature and humidity
  HDC2080.setRate(ONE_HZ);                     // Set measurement frequency to 1 Hz
  HDC2080.setTempRes(FOURTEEN_BIT);
  HDC2080.setHumidRes(FOURTEEN_BIT);

  //begin measuring
  HDC2080.triggerMeasurement();


  Serial.println();

  Serial.println(F("BME280 test"));

  //BME280 sensor 1
  //  multiplexer(0);
  //  if (! bme1.begin(0x77, &Wire)) {
  //    Serial.println("Could not find a valid BME280 sensor, check wiring!");
  //    while (1);
  //  }

  // weather monitoring
  //  Serial.println("-- Weather Station Scenario --");
  //  Serial.println("forced mode, 1x temperature / 1x humidity / 1x pressure oversampling,");
  //  Serial.println("filter off");
  //  bme1.setSampling(Adafruit_BME280::MODE_FORCED,
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // temperature
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // pressure
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // humidity
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::FILTER_OFF   );

  //BME280 sensor 2
  multiplexer(1);
  if (! bme2.begin(0x77, &Wire)) {
    Serial.println("Could not find a valid BME280 sensor, check wiring!");
    //while (1);
  }

  // weather monitoring
  //  Serial.println("-- Weather Station Scenario --");
  //  Serial.println("forced mode, 1x temperature / 1x humidity / 1x pressure oversampling,");
  //  Serial.println("filter off");
  bme2.setSampling(Adafruit_BME280::MODE_FORCED,
                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // temperature
                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // pressure
                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // humidity
                   Adafruit_BME280::FILTER_OFF   );

  //BME280 sensor 3
  //  if (! bme3.begin(0x76, &Wire)) {
  //    Serial.println("Could not find a valid BME280 sensor, check wiring!");
  //    //while (1);
  //  }

  // weather monitoring
  //  Serial.println("-- Weather Station Scenario --");
  //  Serial.println("forced mode, 1x temperature / 1x humidity / 1x pressure oversampling,");
  //  Serial.println("filter off");
  //  bme3.setSampling(Adafruit_BME280::MODE_FORCED,
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // temperature
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // pressure
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::SAMPLING_X1, // humidity
  //                   Adafruit_BME280::FILTER_OFF   );
  //
  //  // suggested rate is 1/60Hz (1m)
  //  delayTime = 10000; // in milliseconds

  Serial.println("Initiating HTU21D");
  multiplexer(6);
  HTU.begin();

  Serial.println("HDC1080 Arduino Test");

  // Default settings:
  //  - Heater off
  //  - 14 bit Temperature and Humidity Measurement Resolutions
  multiplexer(4);
  hdc1080.begin(0x40);


  Serial.println("Si7021 test!");

  multiplexer(5);
  if (!Si7021.begin()) {
    Serial.println("Did not find Si7021 sensor!");
    //while (true);
  }

}

void loop() {

  unsigned long newTime = millis();
  static unsigned long oldTime = 0;

  if (newTime - oldTime >= 60000) {
    oldTime = newTime;

    printValuesHDC2080();
    delay(50);

    multiplexer(4);
    printValuesHDC1080();
    delay(50);

    //    bme3.takeForcedMeasurement(); // has no effect in normal mode
    //    printValuesBME3();

    multiplexer(1);
    bme2.takeForcedMeasurement(); // has no effect in normal mode
    printValuesBME2();
    delay(50);

    multiplexer(6);
    printValuesHTU();
    delay(50);

    multiplexer(5);
    printValueSi7021();
    delay(50);

    printValuesAHT();
    delay(50);

    //  multiplexer(0);
    //  bme1.takeForcedMeasurement(); // has no effect in normal mode
    //  printValuesBME1();

    multiplexer(7);
    printValuesSHT21();
    delay(50);


    Serial.println();
    Serial.println();
  }
}

//void printValuesBME1() {
//
//  Serial.println();
//  Serial.print("BME1 Readings");
//  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
//  Serial.print("Temperature = ");
//  Serial.print(bme1.readTemperature());
//  Serial.println(" *C");
//  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
//  Serial.print("Humidity = ");
//  Serial.print(bme1.readHumidity());
//  Serial.println(" %");
//}

void printValuesBME2() {

  Serial.print("BME2: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(bme2.readTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(bme2.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesBME3() {

  Serial.print("BME3: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(bme3.readTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(bme3.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesSHT21() {
  Serial.print("SHT21: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(SHT2x.GetTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(SHT2x.GetHumidity());
}


void printValuesHTU() {
  Serial.print("HTU: ");
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  float humd = HTU.readHumidity();
  float temp = HTU.readTemperature();

  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(temp, 2);
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(humd, 2);
}

void printValuesHDC2080() {
  Serial.print("HDC2080:");
  //Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = "); Serial.print(HDC2080.readTemp());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = "); Serial.println(HDC2080.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesHDC1080() {
  Serial.print("HDC1080:");
  // Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(hdc1080.readTemperature());
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(hdc1080.readHumidity());
}

void printValuesAHT() {
  /* DEMO - 1, every temperature or humidity call will read 6 bytes over I2C, total 12 bytes */
  Serial.print(F("AHT10: "));
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print(F("T = ")); Serial.print(AHT.readTemperature()); //by default "AHT10_FORCE_READ_DATA"
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print(F("H = ")); Serial.println(AHT.readHumidity());    //by default "AHT10_FORCE_READ_DATA"
}


void printValueSi7021() {
  Serial.print(F("Si7021: "));
  // Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("T = ");
  Serial.print(Si7021.readTemperature(), 2);
  Serial.write(9); // printing a tab using ASCII code
  Serial.print("H = ");
  Serial.println(Si7021.readHumidity(), 2);


  //
  //  // Toggle heater enabled state every 30 seconds
  //  // An ~1.8 degC temperature increase can be noted when heater is enabled
  //  if (++loopCnt == 30) {
  //    enableHeater = !enableHeater;
  //    Si7021.heater(enableHeater);
  //    // Serial.print("Heater Enabled State: ");
  //    if (Si7021.isHeaterEnabled()) {
  //      //  Serial.println("ENABLED");
  //    } else {
  //      // Serial.println("DISABLED");
  //
  //      loopCnt = 0;
}

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